The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a longitudinal study that began in 1992. The HRS provides public use data designed to allow the full power and creativity of America’s scientific community to address the challenges of an aging population. The HRS is making a significant impact on research on aging through investigator-initiated research which uses the HRS as an input without charge to researchers or granting agencies. During the next three waves, it will collect biomarkers and measures of physical performance in in-person interviews on the rotating half-sample design established in the previous cycle. It will maintain the expanded sample of minorities added in 2010. It will continue to innovate in measurement of cognition, health, and well-being. Over 1,000 peer-reviewed journal publications by over 1,000 different authors and co-authors and over 200 doctoral dissertations have appeared based on the HRS.