This project will conduct the 2021 wave of the Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). CDS-21 will reinterview children and families who participated in the 2019 wave of CDS. In 2019, CDS interviews of children?s primary caregivers (PCGs, typically mothers) and older children (ages 12?17 years) were completed for most of the sample in the five months prior to the middle of March 2019, when the Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns began to occur in the United States. Our goal is to collect follow-up CDS interviews in 2021 of PCGs and of older children (ages 12?17 years in 2021) who participated in CDS-19, in order to understand the effects of Covid-19 on children?s health, family circumstances, schooling, development, and well-being. CDS is integral and on-going component of PSID, a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. families that began in 1968. With data collected on the same families and their descendants for 41 waves over 52 years (as of 2020), PSID is a cornerstone for empirical social science research in the U.S. Through its long-term measures of economic and social wellbeing, and based on its weighted representative sample of U.S. families that now includes two major immigrant refresher samples, the study has advanced research on the dynamics of social, economic, demographic, and health processes and their interrelationships. Five waves of CDS have been conducted: three on the original cohort of children born between 1985 and 1997 (in 1997, 2002/2003, and 2007/2008) and two waves (in 2014 and 2019) on the next generation of PSID children who were born between 1997 and 2019. This project has two specific aims. The first is to design and field a follow-up wave of CDS in 2021, collecting reinterview data on children aged 2?17 years who participated in CDS-19, through interviews with PCGs and older children aged 12?17 years. The second specific aim is to process, document, and distribute the new CDS-21 data, with scale composites, generated variables, and individual-level links to detailed school data from the National Center for Education Statistics. This new wave of CDS in 2021 will, in conjunction with data from CDS-14 and CDS-19, provide unique and valuable prospective panel data to study the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, lockdown, and recession. The study will provide comprehensive and rich information on a large, nationally representative sample of children that includes an over-sample of African Americans and a new refresher sample of children in immigrant families. These data will be available free of charge through the PSID Online Data Center, which provides customized extracts and codebooks, detailed study documentation, and comprehensive user education and support.