This project will build directly on previous FNS/ERS ? funded research. First, we will estimate the proportion of SNAP recipients who are extramarginal using the 2015 and 2017 PSID. We expect the share of SNAP beneficiaries who are extramarginal to have declined relative to 2009, 2011, and 2013 because real SNAP benefits have declined. Second, we will determine whether extramarginal participants are more or less likely to be food insecure. Standard economic theory implies that individuals who have low food needs are more likely to be extramarginal, ceteris paribus. If this is the case, we would expect extramarginal participants to be less food insecure. Economic theory also implies that families with lower income will be more likely to be extramarginal. If this is the case, we would expect extramarginal families to be more food insecure. Separating out these two implications of economic theory is the objective of this research.