The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) is a longitudinal survey of a nationally-representative sample of U.S. families that began in 1968. With data collected on the same families and their descendants for 39 waves over 47 years (as of 2015), the PSID can justifiably be considered a cornerstone for empirical social science research in the U.S. Through its long-term measurement of economic and social wellbeing, the study has inspired researchers to investigate the dynamics of economic, social, demographic, and health processes and their interrelationships. NICHD has co-funded the collection of the biennial Core PSID interview for all seven waves from 2003 to 2015. This project will build upon this investment in the next five-year cycle through the following specific aims: (1) screen and recruit a new immigrant refresher sample in 2016 and 2017, comprising approximately 750 immigrant households that migrated to the U.S. after 1997 (when PSID last added an immigrant refresher), and interview these families for two rounds of the Core PSID survey in 2017 and 2019; and (2) collect data from all other PSID respondents on three modules?family dynamics, fertility and newborns, and education?from two rounds of the Core PSID survey in 2017 and 2019, covering approximately 9,850 households in 2017 and 10,244 households in 2019. These data will be cleaned, documented, and distributed free of charge through the PSID Online Data Center, which provides customized extracts and codebooks. In addition, continuing outreach and support will be provided to established and new data users. This project will make several major contributions. By screening and recruiting a new immigrant refresher sample into PSID, this project will enhance the representativeness of PSID and the generalizability of results of studies using these data?now and into the future. The ongoing collection of data on family dynamics, children, and education will maintain PSID as the only long-term panel representative of the full U.S. population that can be used to study these topics over the lifecourse, across generations, and over time.