Little is known about health care use in the cognitive impairment, not dementia (CIND) subpopulation. Using a cohort of 7130 persons aged 71 years or over from the Health and Retirement Survey, we compared mean and total health care use from 2002 to 2008 for those with no cognitive impairment, CIND, or dementia in 2002. Cognitive status was determined using a validated method based on self or proxy interview measures. Health care use was also based on self or proxy reports. On the basis of the Health and Retirement Survey, the CIND subpopulation in 2002 was 5.3 million or 23% of the total population 71 years of age or over. Mean hospital nights was similar and mean nursing home nights was less in persons with CIND compared with persons with dementia. The CIND subpopulation, however, had more total hospital and nursing home nights-71,000 total hospital nights and 223,000 total nursing home nights versus 32,000 hospital nights and 138,000 nursing home nights in the dementia subpopulation. A relatively large population and high health care use result in a large health care impact of the CIND subpopulation.