The size of context effects in social judgment

Emphasizing the role of information accessibility and categorization processes, the authors have proposed the inclusion/exclusion model (Schwarz and Bless, 1992a) as a general framework for conceptualizing assimilation and contrast effects in social judgment. Building on theorizing by Barsalou (1987), Herr et al (1983), Kahneman and Miller (1986), and Martin (1986), the model offers predictions about the emergence, direction, and size of context effects. In this chapter, the authors focus on the latter, often neglected, aspect of what determines the size of assimilation and contrast effects. They first review the core assumptions of the inclusion/exclusion model. Next, they elaborate on the model's predictions pertaining to the size of context effects and review supporting evidence. Finally, they highlight the simultaneous operation of direct and indirect context effects, which presents a rarely addressed complication in predicting the size of contextual influences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (from the chapter)