A Comparison of Alternative Indicators for the Risk of Nonresponse Bias

The response rate has played a key role in measuring the risk of nonresponse bias. However, recent empirical evidence has called into question the utility of the response rate for predicting nonresponse bias. The search for alternatives to the response rate has begun. The present article offers a typology for these indicators, briefly describes the strengths and weaknesses of each type, and suggests directions for future research. New standards for reporting on the risk of nonresponse bias may be needed. Certainly, any analysis into the risk of nonresponse bias will need to be multifaceted and include sensitivity analyses designed to test the impact of key assumptions about the data that are missing due to nonresponse.