BACKGROUND: -Disease management programs for patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) although effective, are often resource intensive, limiting their uptake. Peer support programs have led to improved outcomes among patients with other chronic conditions and may result in similar improvements for HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: -In this randomized controlled trial, Reciprocal Peer Support (RSP) arm patients participated in a HF nurse practitioner (NP)-led goal setting group session, received brief training in peer communication skills, and were paired with another participant in their cohort with whom they were encouraged to talk weekly using a telephone platform. Participants were also encouraged to attend three NP-facilitated peer support group sessions. Patients in the Nurse Care Management (NCM) arm attended a NP-led session to address their HF care questions and receive HF educational materials and information on how to access care management services. The median age of the patients was 69 years, 51% were female, and 26% were racial/ethnic minorities. Only 55% of RPS patients participated in peer calls or group sessions. In intention-to-treat analyses, the RPS and NCM groups did not differ in time to first all-cause rehospitalization or death or in mean numbers of rehospitalizations or deaths. There were no differences in improvements in 6-month measures of HF-specific quality of life or social support. CONCLUSIONS: -Among patients recently hospitalized for HF, over half of RPS participants had no or minimal engagement with the reciprocal peer support program, and the program did not improve outcomes compared to usual HF-nurse care management. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00508508.