Age- and Schooling-Related Effects on Executive Functions in Young Children: A Natural Experiment

We employed a cutoff design in order to examine age- and schooling-related effects on executive functions. Specifically, we looked at development of working memory and response inhibition over the period of 1 school year in prekindergarten and kindergarten students born within 4 months of each other. All children improved on executive function and word-decoding tasks from the beginning to the end of the year. Additionally, we found prekindergarten- and kindergarten-schooling effects for the working memory and word-decoding tasks (p?<?.05), and a trend-level prekindergarten-schooling effect for the response inhibition task (p?<?.10).