Publications

Cyberwar: How Russian Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect a President-What We Don’t, Can’t, and Do Know

Most recent American presidential elections have had reasonably close outcomes, and twice in the last five we have elected a president through the Electoral College who won only a minority of the popular vote. The 2016 campaign produced one of those results, where Hillary Clinton received almost three million more votes than Donald Trump, but he successfully negotiated the Electoral College with a 77-vote margin. If you are looking for the definitive explanation of whether and how the Russians helped Donald Trump defeat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election, you won't find it here. That is because there is no single reason why Trump won and Clinton lost, and there is no “smoking gun” piece of evidence demonstrating how a Russian plan was designed, implemented, and succeeded.