Disparities in diabetes-related multiple chronic conditions and mortality: The influence of race

The aims of this study are to confirm disparities in diabetes mortality rates based on race, determine if race predicts combinations of diabetes and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) that are leading causes of death (LCD), and determine if combinations of diabetes plus MCC mediate the relationship between race and mortality.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of 443,932 Medicare beneficiaries in the State of Michigan with type 2 diabetes mellitus and MCC. We applied Cox proportional hazards regression to determine predictors of mortality. We applied multinomial logistic regression to determine predictors of MCC combinations.
We found that race influences mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and MCC. Prior to adjusting for MCC combinations, we observed that Blacks and American Indian/Alaska Natives have increased risk of mortality compared to Whites, while there is no difference in mortality between Hispanics and Whites. Regarding MCC combinations, Black/African American beneficiaries experience increased odds for most MCC combinations while Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics experience lower odds for MCC combinations, compared to Whites. When adjusting for MCC, mortality disparities observed between Whites, Black/African Americans, and American Indians/Alaska Natives persist.
Compared to Whites, Black/African Americans in our cohort had increased odds of most MCC combinations, and an increased risk of mortality that persisted even after adjusting for MCC combinations.