Human hippocampal activation in the delayed matching- and nonmatching-to-sample memory tasks: an event-related functional MRI approach

The delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) and delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) memory tasks are standard tools used to probe visual recognition memory in human and nonhuman primates. Previous research indicates that structures within the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, make up a crucial memory circuit for successful performance on these tasks. In the present investigation, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine activation in the hippocampus proper during these memory tasks relative to a perceptuomotor task involving the same stimuli. The results indicate that both memory tasks elicited greater activation in the right hippocampus during the encoding phase. These findings are consistent with the work from human patients and animal studies, indicating hippocampal involvement in the DMS and DNMS tasks.