Missing-Data Adjustments in Large Surveys

Useful properties of a general-purpose imputation method for numerical data are suggested and discussed in the context of several large government surveys. Imputation based on predictive mean matching is proposed as a useful extension of methods in existing practice, and versions of the method are presented for unit nonresponse and item nonresponse with a general pattern of missingness. Extensions of the method to provide multiple imputations are also considered. Pros and cons of weighting adjustments are discussed, and weighting-based analogs to predictive mean matching are outlined.