Mixed-Effect Hybrid Models for Longitudinal Data with Nonignorable Dropout

Selection models and pattern-mixture models are often used to deal with nonignorable dropout in longitudinal studies. These two classes of models are based on different factorizations of the joint distribution of the outcome process and the dropout process. We consider a new class of models, called mixed-effect hybrid models (MEHMs), where the joint distribution of the outcome process and dropout process is factorized into the marginal distribution of random effects, the dropout process conditional on random effects, and the outcome process conditional on dropout patterns and random effects. MEHMs combine features of selection models and pattern-mixture models: they directly model the missingness process as in selection models, and enjoy the computational simplicity of pattern-mixture models. The MEHM provides a generalization of shared-parameter models (SPMs) by relaxing the conditional independence assumption between the measurement process and the dropout process given random effects. Because SPMs are nested within MEHMs, likelihood ratio tests can be constructed to evaluate the conditional independence assumption of SPMs. We use data from a pediatric AIDS clinical trial to illustrate the models.