Publications

New Directions in Presidential-Election Research

© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.comThe 2012 election was remarkable in several regards. It was the most expensive ever, with each candidate raising and spending more than $1 billion on his own and having a further, significant proportion of that amount spent by outside groups on his behalf. At the same time, the campaigns focused their efforts with laser-like precision on just a few battleground states. According to America Goes to the Polls 2012, a total of 96 percent of presidential expenditures on television between April 11 (when the two opponents were effectively known) and November 6 were spent in just 10 states (Nonprofit VOTE 2013). Furthermore, the candidates spent nearly six times as much money on advertising in Florida as in the 40 non-swing…