Publications

Overview of Questionnaire Design and Testing

This chapter briefly discusses the operational challenges and choices specific to questionnaire design in multinational, multicultural, or multiregional (3MC) surveys. An operational challenge in comparative questionnaire design relates to the instrument technical design ? that is, the format, layout, numbering, and so forth. The chapter considers the conceptual challenges in comparative questionnaire design ? specifically, the role that culture and context hold in comparative research-followed by a brief discussion of comparability and measurement error in comparative questionnaire design. In a 3MC survey, three criteria should be considered for each cultural group included in the survey, and comparability of each of these criteria across cultural groups should also be considered. The three criteria are validity, reliability, and bias. The chapter also discusses the implications for questionnaire design where English is the most used lingua franca for source questionnaires in comparative surveys.