In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of diabetes reciprocal peer support, we examined characteristics of peers associated with improvements in their partner's glycemic control.
A total of 102 adults with diabetes were randomized to the reciprocal peer support arm (vs. a nurse care management arm). The primary outcome was change in A1c over six months. Intermediate outcomes were insulin initiation and peer engagement. A number of baseline characteristics of peers were hypothesized to influence outcomes for their peer, and concordant characteristics of peer dyads were hypothesized that would influence outcomes for both peer partners.
Improvement in A1c was associated with having a peer older than oneself (P < .05) or with higher diabetes-related distress (P < .01). Participants with peers who reported poorer health at baseline had worse glycemic control at follow-up (P < .01). Hypothesized concordant characteristics were not associated with A1c improvements. Participants whose peers had a more controlled self-regulation style were more likely to initiate insulin (P < .05).
The improved outcomes of peers whose partners were older and reported more diabetes distress at baseline supports the need for further research into the peer characteristics that lead to improved outcomes. This could allow for better matching and more effective partnerships.