Poor accordance to a DASH dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of ESRD among adults with moderate chronic kidney disease and hypertension

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet lowers blood pressure, an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, it is unclear whether adherence to a DASH diet confers protection against future ESRD, especially among those with pre-existing CKD and hypertension. We examined whether a DASH diet is associated with lower risk of ESRD among 1,110 adults aged ≥ 20 years with hypertension and CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Baseline DASH diet accordance score was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire. ESRD was ascertained by linkage to the U.S. Renal Data System registry. We used the Fine-Gray competing risks method to estimate the relative hazard (RH) for ESRD after adjusting for sociodemographics, clinical and nutritional factors, eGFR, and albuminuria. Over a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 18.4% of subjects developed ESRD. Compared to the highest quintile of DASH diet accordance, there was a greater risk of ESRD among subjects in quintiles 1 (RH=1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.7) and 2 (RH 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Significant interactions were observed with diabetes status and race/ethnicity, with the strongest association between DASH diet adherence and ESRD risk observed in individuals with diabetes and in non-Hispanic blacks. Low accordance to a DASH diet is associated with greater risk of ESRD in adults with moderate CKD and hypertension, particularly in non-Hispanic blacks and persons with diabetes.