Self-efficacy changes in groups: Effects of diversity, leadership, and group climate

Self-efficacy belief is a significant predictor of behavioral choices in terms of goal setting, the amount of effort devoted to a particular task, and actual performance. This study conceives of formation and change of self-efficacy as a social and context-dependent process. We hypothesized that different group factors (discretionary and ambient group stimuli) influence changes in members' self-efficacy through differing routes (individual-level and cross-level processes). We tested our hypotheses using data from individuals in 169 training groups who attended a 5-day workshop designed to increase participants' job-search skills and efficacy. Specifically, we examined the degree of change in participants' job- search efficacy before and after the workshop. The results showed that (a) membership diversity in education was positively related to increases in job-search efficacy, (b) supportive leadership contributed to job-search efficacy at the individual level of analysis with no cross-level effects, and (c) open group climate contributed to job-search efficacy through both individual-level and cross-level processes. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)