Despite well documented high levels of socioeconomic inequalities, health gradients by socioeconomic status (SES) in contemporary China have been reported to be limited. Using data from the 2010â€“2012 China Family Panel Studies, we reexamine associations between three sets of SESâ€”human capital, material conditions, and political capitalâ€”and self-rated health among Chinese adults 18â€“70Â years old, capitalizing on anchoring vignette data to adjust for reporting heterogeneity. We find strong evidence of substantial variations in reporting behaviors by education, cognition, and family wealth but not by family income or political capital. Failing to correct for reporting heterogeneity can bias the estimates of SES gradients in self-rated health as much as nearly 40Â %. After vignette adjustment, we find significantly positive associations of education, family income, wealth, and political capital with self-rated health. Individualsâ€™ cognitive capacity, however, does not predict self-rated health.