Stages of mammography adoption in Asian American women

Asian American women have the lowest mammography screening rate and are often diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer compared with other ethnic groups. This study applied the Transtheoretical Model and examined the relationships between stages of mammography adoption and mammography-related beliefs while controlling for socio-demographic factors. The study consisted of a convenience sample of 315 participants from four populous Asian ethnic groups in Michigan (109 Asian Indians, 51 Chinese, 36 Koreans and 119 Filipinos). In this relatively small sample, Koreans appeared to be more likely to be at the pre-contemplation stage and less likely to be at the maintenance stage. Perceived barriers and decisional balance scores differed by stage, with pre-contemplators reporting highest barriers and lowest scores in decisional balance. In terms of specific barrier items, pre-contemplators also displayed significantly greater agreement for most of the barrier items. Participants in the action stage have less favorable decisional balance than those in two earlier stages (i.e. contemplation and relapse). Common barriers for this sample of Asian participants included the items related to access and modesty issues. Overall, the study supports the notion that assessing differences in mammography-related beliefs by stage of screening behavior may facilitate the development of stage-matched interventions for Asian ethnic groups.