Publications

Temperament and suicide: A national study

Background: Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. Methods: The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Results: Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait ?having self-confidence? is strongly protective of suicide attempts, ?liking to be the boss?, ?getting into heated arguments?, and ?the right and privilege to do as I please? are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the ?dark side? of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits?in the absence of ?having self-confidence? ?are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Limitations: Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. Conclusions: The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with mental disorders.; Background: Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. Methods: The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Results: Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait ?having self-confidence? is strongly protective of suicide attempts, ?liking to be the boss?, ?getting into heated arguments?, and ?the right and privilege to do as I please? are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the ?dark side? of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits?in the absence of ?having self-confidence? ?are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Limitations: Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. Conclusions: The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with mental disorders.